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Why Are Arabic Alphabet Important to learn?

In this regard, it is important that to learn Arabic like any language , you have to start from the Arabic alphabet. Initially, pronunciation of Arabic letters may be difficult for brothers and sisters who are unfamiliar with basic letters. However, with some practice on the sounds, you will be able to pronounce them properly. Moreover, it also helps you to go for Noorani Qaida reading, Quran reading, Arabic language or any other Arabic book. 

Therefore, don’t worry! You have landed in the right place. In this guide, you will learn all the basic alphabets in Arabic.

Important Points for Learning Arabic Alphabet as a Beginner

The Arabic alphabet chart mentioned here is a complete picture of Arabic letters. However, we will also explain how you should attempt to learn.

Arabic alphabet a to z

Important Points

  1. First, start reading from right to left. This means that Arabic writing will also be done from right to left.
  2. Next, look at the first letter (Alif) and read Alif for ‘ALLAH,’ similar to how in English, kids learn A for APPLE.
  3. Then, consider on each letter’s shape from Alif to Yaa  i.e Arabic Alphabets A to Z
  4. Due to unfamiliar characters, non-Arabic speakers may face difficulty at first but it’s not as difficult as it looks.
  5. Ask kids to write similar shapes of Arabic alphabets on notebook or erasable hardboard or green board
  6. Being Arabic as a phonetic language, you write words exactly how you pronounce them.
  7. Ask them to read aloud. The Classical pronunciation of each Arabic letter will help them pronounce properly.
  8. The pronunciation rules are very consistent. Unlike English, you won’t find the same letter having different sounds.
  9. Help students identify the “dot(s)” in different letters.
  10. Upon completion, ask them to read from left to right, top to bottom, and bottom to top. This practice ensures they have learned and can identify the shapes and sounds.
  11. Finally, note that at this point, students should have grasped each letter and sound; otherwise, they will face problems in later lessons.

How many Letters are in the Arabic Alphabet?

Now, we have learned the basic rules for Arabic letters, but a few more details are required to make our basic knowledge more perfect. Ok, let’s go 

The Arabic alphabet has 29 letters and its sounds are 28. Therefore, many Arabic instructors highlight them as 28 letters. Moreover, each letter makes a special sound, just like in games where each piece has its own job. These letters help us write words and stories in Arabic. Learning them is like finding all the pieces to make a big puzzle! When we learn these letters, we can read books, write our names, and say new words. It’s like having 28 super friends who help us talk and read in Arabic every day. So, let’s learn these letters together and have fun with our new super friends

What are Bold (Heavy) and Light Letters in Arabic Alphabet?

When we are talking about sounds in the Arabic alphabet, we categorized them into heavy and light sound letters.

Bold (Heavy) Letters

Heavy letters have a deep and strong sound when pronounced. Additionally, they often create a break or pause in the flow of speech. These letters have to be pronounced from a deep throat. Examples include:

خ (Khaa)

ص (saad)

ض (daad)

ط (taa)

 ظ (Zhaa)

غ (Ghayn)

ق (qaaf)

 Light Letters

All the above letters are generally light letters. These have a soft and clear sound when pronounced. Examples include:

ب (baa)

ت (taa)

ن (noon)

ي (yaa)

How many Different Forms of Letter in Arabic?

Imagine this: when we join letters in Arabic to form words, each letter changes its shape depending on where it is in the word. Typically, each letter has four forms: initial, medial, final, and isolated. To grasp this better, we will create an Arabic Alphabets Chart.

Letter NameClassical NameForms / ShapesClosest in English


اAlifInitial> Middle>Final ـا Isolated اaa, uh-oh
بBaaInitial بـ Middle ـبـ Final ـب Isolated بb
تTaaInitial تــ Middle ـتـ Final ـت Isolated تt
ثThaaInitial ثـ Middle ـثـ Final ـث Isolated ثth
جJeemInitial جـ Middle ـجـ Final ـج Isolated جj
حHaaInitial حـ Middle ـحـ Final ـح Isolated حno equivalent ‘h’
خKhaaInitial خـ Middle ـخـ Final ـخ Isolated خch
دDaalInitial > Middle > Final ـد Isolated دd
ذDhaalInitial > Middle > Final ـذ Isolated ذth
رRaaInitial > Middle > Final ـر Isolated رsoft r
زZaaInitial > Middle > Final ـز Isolated زz
سSeenInitial سـ Middle ـسـ Final ـس Isolated سs
شSheenInitial شـ Middle ـشـ Final ــش Isolated شsh
صSuaadInitial صـ Middle ـصـ Final ـص Isolated صno equivalent ‘s’
ضDuaadInitial ضـ Middle ـضـ Final ـض Isolated ضno equivalent ‘d’
طTuaaInitial طـ Middle ـطـ Final ـط Isolated طno equivalent ‘t’
ظZuaaInitial ظـ Middle ـظـ Final ـظ Isolated ظno equivalent ‘th’
عAynInitial عـ Middle ـعـ Final ـع Isolated عno equivalent ‘ha’
غGhaynInitial غـ Middle ـغـ Final ـغ Isolated غno equivalent ‘g’
فFaaInitial فـ Middle ـفـ Final ـف Isolated فno equivalent ‘ha’
قQaafInitial قـ Middle ـقـ Final ـق Isolated قno equivalent ‘c’
كKaafInitial كـ Middle ـكـ Final ـك Isolated كc
لLaamInitial لـ Middle ـلـ Final ـل Isolated لl
مMeemInitial مـ Middle ـمـ Final ـم Isolated مm
نNoonInitial نـ Middle ـنـ Final ـن Isolated نn
وWawInitial > Middle > Final ـو Isolated زw, oo
هـHaaInitial هـ Middle ـهـ Final ـه Isolated هـh
ءHamzaInitial > Middle > Final > Isolated ءuh-oh
يYaaInitial يـ Middle ـيـ Final ـي Isolated يy, ee

This chart includes Arabic letters, Classical pronunciation, forms, and sounds closest to English. It will help you understand the shape of each letter and its corresponding sounds.

How Can We Understand Crosswords in Arabic Letters

In Arabic, crosswords refer to the basic concept of how letters connect to each other when written in words. As you are well aware, Arabic text is cursive, meaning that letters change their shapes depending on their position within the word. Moreover, you have already gone through the Arabic alphabet chart above.

Additionally, we will discuss different crossword letters in Arabic for more in-depth knowledge at this stage to lay down a strong foundation for you to learn Arabic in the future.

Friendly Letters

These letters connect easily to the following letter, forming a continuous flow in the word. Examples of friendly letters include ب, ت, ث, ن, ي, ر, ل, and many others.

For Instance,  The word “سلام” (salaam, meaning peace). Here س (seen) connects to ل (laam) and then to ا (alif).

Unfriendly Letters

These letters do not connect to the following letter and typically stand alone in their position within a word. These letters include ا, د, ذ, ز, and و.

For Example The word “رَمَضَان” (Ramadan the holy month of fasting). Here, ر (raa) does not connect to م (meem), and م (meem) does not connect to ض (daad).

Letters with Conditional Connection: On fulfilling some certain conditions, this letter will start working. Examples include ق, ف, ك, and others.

For Instance: The word “مَدينَة” (madinah, meaning city). Here, د (daal) connects to ي (yaa), but ي (yaa) does not connect to ن (noon).

How Many Vowel Letters Are There in the Arabic Alphabet and How Do They Work?

No vowel letters exist in the Arabic alphabet. Unlike in English, where there are five vowels (A, E, I, O, U), Arabic uses different marks for vowels. These vowels play a basic role in understanding writing and speaking Arabic. However, to understand Arabic at a basic level, Quran teachers describe two types of vowels: short vowels and long vowels. These vowels provide three kinds of movements while reading Arabic.

a. Fatha (ـَ) and (ــً)

Fatha is a small diagonal line above a letter. Whereas, when fatha is double, it changes sounds as compare to single fatha.

For Example

Single fatha is pronounced “a” sound in English whereas in Arabic we read it as بَ (ba) تَ (ta) نَ (na).

Double fatha is pronounced as “an” Sound in English whereas in Arabic we read it as بً (ban) تً  (tan) نً (nan).

b. Kasra (ـِ) and (ــٍ) 
Kasra is a small diagonal line below a letter. Whereas, when kasra  is double, it changes sounds as compare to single kasra

For Example

Single kasra is pronounced “i” sound in English whereas in Arabic we read it as بِ (bi) تِ (ti) نِ (ni).

Double kasra is pronounced as “in” Sound in English whereas in Arabic we read it as بٍِ (bin) تٍِ (tin) نٍِ (nin).

c. Damma  (ـُ) and (ــٌ)
Damma is a small loop above a letter. Whereas, when kasra  is double, it changes sounds as compare to single Damma

For Example

Single damma is pronounced “u” sound in English whereas in Arabic we read it as بُ (bu) تُ (tu) نُ (nu). 

Double damma is pronounced as “un” Sound in English whereas in Arabic we read it as بٌ (bun) تُن (tun) نٌ (nun).

Why are Arabic Alphabet daunting for Non-Arabic Speakers?

At first, non-Arabic speakers are familiar with reading and writing from left to right. When they dive into learning Arabic, the direction reverses to right to left, which can be confusing. 

Secondly, they are unfamiliar with Arabic scripts, letters, shapes, and sounds. For instance, letters like غ (ghayn) and ع (ayn) have unique sounds not found in many other languages, making pronunciation challenging. However, with practice in writing and reading Arabic letters, you can overcome these difficulties and enjoy learning.


Learn the Arabic alphabet is the basic step to go for master the Arabic language. First, learn the sounds, forms, and distinctions of each letter. Non-Arabic speakers can build a solid foundation this way. Practice regularly. Use charts to help. Pay attention to heavy and light letters for better pronunciation.

Additionally, it not only provides you with a solid foundation in Arabic alphabet but also assists you in learning advanced courses. Most brothers and sisters from non-Arab countries start by learning Noorani Qaida as their first course. Therefore, if you need any help with reading basic Arabic books, Quran reading, memorization, or translation, feel free to contact us for free trial lessons.

Helpful article for students: Super short Dua’s for Success in exam.

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